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2. Economics, production, trade; 5. Nature, climate, minerals; 7. Poverty, crises, Third World development; 8. Society, population, culture; 9. War, violence; 10. Worldview, perception.
Global crises, Economic development, Domination, Nature, Society, Poverty, War, Women, Worldview.
Burden of war, child mortality, children's rights, climate change, co-evolution, conflicts, deforestation, desertification, domination, ecofeminism, environmental destruction, environmental problems, gender inequalities, gender violence, general systems theory, global crises, HIV-AIDS, human rights abuses, human trafficking, hunger, I Ching, military spending, North-South inequalities, patriarchal, perceptual and intellectual crises, pollution and waste, poverty and inequality, rape, reductionist, slavery, Smuts' holism, Taoism, war and violence, water scarcity, women's rights, yin, yang.
This article presents four interconnected crises with which our world is faced. They include war and violence; poverty and inequality; environmental destruction; and human rights abuses. Some features, the extent, and severity of the crises are illustrated. It is also exposed that women, poor people, and nature continuously, consistently, and unjustifiably are the victims that must carry the agonizing effects from the crises. Since the crises are interlinked and reinforce each other they cannot be understood in isolation. All are rooted in a larger systemic crisis, which here is called "a perceptual and intellectual crisis." This root crisis relates to the modern world's out-dated, reductionist, dualised world-view and its priority on all that is masculine (yang). Due to this limited and unbalanced perception of reality, proponents of the modern worldview subordinate all they perceive as feminine (yin). The result manifests as systematic political and economic domination of society and nature. In order to ameliorate the crises, we need an alternative non-dualist, holistic, and systemic worldview. One such model is the Chinese philosophy of changes, I Ching, with its harmonious yin and yang forces. The framework is presented as a possible solution.
Science, Agriculture, Hunger, Profit, Technology, Nature, Worldview, Women, Traditional People, Indigenous knowledge, Third World development.
Agroecology, cash crop, critique of science, end hunger, environmental issues, farmland grab, food production, gender, genetically modified organisms, GMOs, green revolution, history of science, holistic knowledge, hunger and poverty, hybrid seeds, Indian farmer suicide, indigenous knowledges, masculine science, organic farming, patriarchy, reductionism, scientific development, scientific agriculture, scientific water management, situated knowledges, values in science.
This article argues that science is a knowledge system that dominates women, poor people, and nature. Since science is the foundation in development, also development activities tend to be dominant. Development is therefore not a solution to poverty in the South. Food production is used as an example. The first part of the article explains the methods scientific agriculture use in food production. Since the overall focus is on profit-making, scientific agriculture exploits nature, undermines the ecological knowledge of women and traditional people, and by that fails to reduce hunger in the South. The first part ends with presenting an ecological method of food production that can alleviate hunger and sustain the environment. The second part of the article clarifies by theoretical discussions and historical facts that science is a reductionist and dualist knowledge system with patriarchal root values that subordinate the needs of women, traditional people, and nature. Applying it to development and expecting it to alleviate hunger and poverty in the South is consequently a paradox. The second part ends with outlining some elements required to make a knowledge system holistic and diverse, including the wisdom and needs of women, traditional people, and nature. The article finally recommends that development studies and development organizations support indigenous knowledges and in that way assist people to alleviate their poverty and hunger.
Economics, Poverty, Third World Development, Women, Nature, Domination, Worldview, Quality of life.
Citizen's income, cost-benefit analysis, critique of economics, definition of poverty, dualism, economic development, economic efficiency, economic externalities, economic growth, economic rationality, environmental degradation, environmental economics, feminization of poverty, free markets, GDP, gender inequalities, GNP, Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Product, holistic economics, inequality, male-bias development, new economics, poor people, poverty alleviation, poverty creation, poverty of women, poverty, public/private sector, quality of life, reductionism, subsistence economy, supply/demand, Third World development, trickle-down theory, United Nations System of National Accounting, UNSNA, yang, yin.
This article argues that perceiving development as an economic growth activity that can alleviate poverty in the South is a paradox. Since the underlying values of economics are based on dualist and reductionist perception – prioritizing quantitative, masculine or yang forces, while marginalizing qualitative, feminine or yin energies – the discipline is merely a tool to dominate society and exploit nature. The result is poverty for women, indigenous peoples, and nature, and affluence for the political and economic elites. In order to alleviate poverty and rejuvenate nature, economics must adapt and become a holistic and systemic discipline that is embedded in our social and natural realities. Only then will economics become useful as a tool for poverty alleviation and thus, be helpful in creating a quality of life for people in the South.
Technology, Poverty, Third World Development, Nature, Exploitation, Quality of life, Worldview.
Access to energy, appropriate technology, Banqiao Dam, clean drinking water, critique of technology, dam effects, destructive technology, development history, economic growth, energy poverty, energy, environmental issues, Gilgel Gibe III Dam, inappropriate technology, Intermediate Technology, Narmada Valley Project, poverty, Sichuan Earthquake, small-scale hydro power, solar lantern, solar light bulb, solar panel, solar power, South-to-North Water Diversion Project, technical development, technology, Three Gorges Dam, values of technology, water dam, yang, yin.
This article argues that perceiving development as a technical "fix" for poverty alleviation is a paradox. While applying modern technology may increase economic quantities and create a modern living standard for the elite, it removes lands, forests, and waters from local peoples' subsistence, destroying their quality of life and creating poverty. The construction of large water dams is used as an example. While hydro technology is generating economic growth, the dam effects are giving social and environmental damage. To understand why this happens, the underlying values of modern technology are analyzed, and it is examined how development became a technical fix. The analysis clarifies that technology is dominated by vested interests, promoting large-scale, capital-intensive technologies meant for individual profit-making, rather than for social benefit. Modern technology therefore concentrates power and wealth in few hands, while making the majority poorer and more powerless. Thus, "inappropriate" technology has become a means for the elite to dominate society and exploit nature, opposing democracy. The article ends with presenting alternative technologies, which are cheap, small-scale, gentle to nature, and designed to serve poor people. Appropriate technology can create human well-being and independence; it can alleviate poverty and bring about sustainable livelihoods, all of which will contribute to a needed decentralization of power.
All four articles are written by Jytte Nhanenge. These are her biographical details:
Jytte Nhanenge is a Danish woman, who has been working with Third World development in Africa for many years. Being troubled about development's inability to alleviate poverty, she decided to find out what is wrong with development. She then embarked on a lengthy study period at University of South Africa (UNISA). Her search was for the root cause of poverty and an ethics in development. Using inputs from many insightful authors, Jytte compiled the outcome of her search in a comprehensive dissertation titled, "Ecofeminism: Towards Integrating the Concerns of Women, Poor People, and Nature into Development." She rewrote the dissertation into book form, and in 2011 it was published by University Press of America (Rowman and Littlefield.) In the book and in these four core articles, Jytte shares some of the insight she gained during her long search for limitations in economic development. Jytte lives in Chimoio, Mozambique.
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"Never give up, never, never give up." Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, historian, writer, artist, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1874-1965)
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